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This article describes relation of transducers and transformers for acquisition of analog data.
Transducers measure power system parameters by sampling instrument transformer secondaries. They provide a scaled, low-energy signal that represents a power system quantity that the SA interface controller can easily accept. Transducers also isolate and buffer the SA interface controller from the power system and substation environments. Transducer outputs are dc voltages or currents in the range of a few tens of volts or milliamperes.
Transducers measuring power system electrical quantities are designed to be compatible with instrument transformer outputs.
Potential inputs are based around 120 or 115 Vac, and current inputs accept 0 to 5 A. Many transducers can operate at levels above their normal ranges with little degradation in accuracy provided their output limits are not exceeded. Transducer input circuits share the same instrument transformers as the station metering and protection systems; thus, they must conform to the same wiring standards as any switchboard component. Wiring standards for current and potential circuits vary between utilities, but generally 600-V-class wiring is required, and no. 12 AWG or larger wire is used.
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